Echo ChamberRupert Murdoch’s recent multibillion-dollar purchase of the Wall Street Journal made international news. Yet it is but one more chapter in an untold story: the rise of an integrated conservative media machine that all began with Rush Limbaugh in the 1980s. Now Kathleen Hall Jamieson and Joseph Cappella—two of the nation’s foremost experts on politics and communications—offer a searching analysis of the conservative media establishment, from talk radio to Fox News to the editorial page of the Wall Street Journal. Indeed, here is the first serious account of how the conservative media arose, what it consists of, and how it operates. This thoughtful study offers the most authoritative and insightful account of this revolutionary phenomenon available today.

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Supplemental Material

For readers of Echo Chamber

How to use this web site

  • Any reference in Echo Chamber to appendix material will be found here
  • Appendices 1-14 parallel the 14 chapters of Echo Chamber
  • Materials within each appendix are organized in sequence with their appearance in each chapter of Echo Chamber
  • Use the chapter number and page number of citations in Echo Chamber to find specific appendix material
  • Use the chapter and page number along with the Table of Contents for the Appendices (TOCA), below, to locate the specific supporting material
  • TOCA lists every chapter and page number from Echo Chamber where appendix material is offered

Table of Contents for Appendices
Echo Chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the Conservative Media Establishment

 

Chapter Brief Description Appendix
1 How the Conservative Opinion Media Attack the Democratic Opposition App1-4.pdf
2 How the Conservative Opinion Media Defend Conservatism
3 Conservative Opinion Media: The Players
4 The Conservative Opinion Media as Opponents of Liberalism
5 Effects of an Echo Chamber
  • Distribution of PTR Listeners: 1996, Waves 1-3 – Page 86
  • Distribution of PTR Listeners: 1996, Waves 4-5 – Page 87
  • Adherence to Instructions: PTR 1996 Experiment – Page 88
App_5.pdf
6 Speaking to the Republican Base
  • Description of the PTR Surveys 1996 – Page 94
App_6.pdf
7 Vetting Candidates for Office
  • Attitudes toward Limbaugh & Buchanan 1996 Primaries – Page 112
  • Favorability toward McCain, New Hampshire primary, 2000 – Page 114
  • Favorability toward McCain, Super Tuesday primary, 2000 – Page 114
  • Political Party Defectors, Limbaugh & Fox Audiences, 2004 – Page 125
App_7.pdf
8 Stirring Emotion to Mobilize Engagement
  • Trust in Government by PTR Groups, 1996 – Page 127
  • Political Indifference by PTR Groups, 1996 – Page 129
  • Political Participation by PTR Groups, 1996 – Page 130
  • Mistrust of Government and Political Participation, 1996 – Page 131
  • Data from The Executive Branch study, 2003 – Page 132
  • Trust in Government by PTR Listeners, 2003 Executive Branch Study – Page 132
  • Limbaugh’s Content versus Other Sources, Primary, 1996 – Page 132
  • Emotional Reactions and Candidate Preference, Election, 1996 – Page 137
App_8.pdf
9 Framing and Reframing the Mainstream Media None
10 Engendering Distrust of Mainstream Media
  • Distribution of PTR Listeners: 1996, Waves 1-5 (same as Appendix 5.1) – Page 164
  • Mistrust of Mainstream Media by PTR Group, 1996 – Page 165
  • Adherence to Instructions: PTR 1996 Experiment (same as Appendix 5.3) – Page 168
  • Exposure and Aattention to Mainstream News by PTR Group, 1996 – Page 172
  • Mistrust of Mainstream News by PTR Group, Post-election, 1996 – Page 173
  • Mistrust of Mainstream News on Exposure to News, 1996 – Page 173
  • Exposure to Mainstream News by PTR Group, 2004 – Page 174
App_10.pdf
11 Defending an Insular Interpretive Community None
12 Balkanization of Knowledge and Interpretation
  • Creation of Five Comparison Groups – Page 195
  • Knowledge Questions from Presidential Campaign, 1996 – Page 196
  • Balkanization Effects – Page 196
  • Distortion of Candidates’ Views (Items), 1996 – Page 198
  • Creation of Five Comparison Groups, 1996 (same as appendix 12.1) – Page 199
  • Distortions of Candidates’ Views by PTR Group, 1996 (Figures 12.2 a & b) – Page 199
  • Interpretation of Political Events by Media Groups, 1996 – Page 204
  • Attributions about the Outcome of 1996 Presidential Campaign – Page 210
  • Swift Boat Veteran ads on survey, details – Page 212
App_12.pdf
13 Distort and Polarize
  • Polarization of Attitudes after Exposure to PTR, 1996 – Page 224
  • Polarization of Policy Positions by News Media Groups, 1996 PTR Survey – Page 225
  • Polarization of (Additional) Policy Positions by News Media Groups, 1996 PTR Survey – Page 226
  • Perceived Ideology of Candidates for all Respondents, 2000 – Page 228
  • Perceived Ideology of Candidates by Limbaugh Group, 2004 – Page 229
  • Distortion of Candidates’ Positions by Media Exposure, 2004 – Page 232
App_13.pdf
14 Conclusion None
Additional Materials
Data, Reports, and Codebooks for the 1996 PTR Experiment Link
Data, Reports, and Codebooks for the 1996 PTR Survey Link