Ivy Defoe is a postdoctoral fellow at the Annenberg Public Policy Center, where she conducts research on policy-relevant questions concerning adolescent risk behaviors. She obtained her Ph.D. cum laude in November 2016 from Utrecht University, where her research project was entitled the Adolescent Risk Taking (ART) project. Originally from the Dutch Caribbean, she moved to the Netherlands in 2006, where she received her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Developmental Psychology at the VU University Amsterdam. In 2011 she began a five-year Ph.D. program in the Developmental Psychology department of Utrecht University. During her Ph.D. research, Ivy also received training at the Affective Neuroscience & Development Lab at Harvard University via a Fulbright Scholarship and at the Institute of Criminology at the University of Cambridge via a Utrecht University Travel Grant.